Reviews That Recommend Cell Towers Be Distanced Away From Homes and Schools
- A review paper entitled “Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers” reviewed the “large and growing body of evidence that human exposure to RFR from cellular phone base stations causes negative health effects.” The authors recommends restricting antennas near home and within 500 meters of schools and hospitals to protect companies from future liability (Pearce 2020).
- An analysis of 100 studies published in Environmental Reviews found ~80% showed biological effects near towers. “As a general guideline, cell base stations should not be located less than 1500 ft from the population, and at a height of about 150 ft.” (Levitt 2010)
- A review published in the International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health found people living less than 500 m from base station antennas had an increased adverse neuro-behavioral symptoms and cancer in eight of the ten epidemiological studies (Khurana 2011).
- A paper by human rights experts documented the accumulating science indicating safety is not assured and considered the issue within a human rights framework to protect vulnerable populations from environmental pollution. “We conclude that, because scientific knowledge is incomplete, a precautionary approach is better suited to State obligations under international human rights law,” (Roda and Perry 2014)
- A 2020 review entitled “Evidence for a health risk by RF on humans living around mobile phone base stations: From radiofrequency sickness to cancer reviewed the existing scientific literature and found radiofrequency sickness, cancer and changes in biochemical parameters.
Cell Towers and Cancer
- A study published in Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine found changes in blood considered biomarkers predictive of cancer in people living closer to cell antenna arrays (Zothansiama 2017).
- A study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health found higher exposure to cell arrays linked to higher mortality from all cancer and specifically lung and breast cancer (Rodrigues 2021).
- A study published in Science of the Total Environment 10 year study on cell phone antennas by the local Municipal Health Department and several universities in Brazil found a clearly elevated relative risk of cancer mortality at residential distances of 500 meters or less from cell phone towers (Dode 2011).
- A large scale animal study published in Environmental Research found rats exposed to radiofrequency levels comparable to cell tower emissions had elevated cancers, the very same cancers also found in the US National Toxicology Program Study (Falcioni 2018).
- A study commissioned by the Provincial Government of Styria, Austria found a significant cancer incidence in the area around the transmitter as well as significant exposure-effect relationships between radiofrequency radiation exposure and the incidence of breast cancers and brain tumors (Oberfeld 2008).
- A review published in Experimental Oncology found “alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation.” Even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby (Yakymenko 2011).
Cell Tower Radiation Classification by the World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer
In 2011, radiofrequency radiation was classified as a Class 2B possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO/IARC). The scientists clarified that the determination was for RFR from any source be it cell phones, wireless devices or cell towers. Since 2011, the published peer-reviewed scientific evidence showing associations with adverse effects has significantly increased.
In 2019, the advisory committee to the WHO/IARC recommended that radiofrequency radiation be re-evaluated as a “high” priority in light of the new research.
Several scientists conclude that the weight of current peer-reviewed evidence supports the conclusion that radiofrequency radiation should be upgraded and now regarded as a proven human carcinogen (Hardell and Carlberg 2017, Peleg et al, 2018, Miller et al 2018).
Surveys of people living near cell tower antennas in France, Spain, Iraq, India, Germany, Egypt, Poland have found significantly higher reports of health issues including sleep issues, fatigue and headaches (Santini et al 2003, López 2021, Alazawi 2011, Pachuau and Pachuaua 2016,, Eger et al 2004, Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007, Bortkiewicz et al., 2004).
A study published in American Journal of Men’s Health linked higher cell tower RFR exposures to delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents (Meo 2018).
A study published in Environmental Research and Public Health found higher exposures linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes (Meo 2015).
A study following people for 6 years linked increased cell phone and cell phone tower antenna exposure to altered levels of hormones including cortisol, thyroid, prolactin and testosterone (Eskander et al 2021).
A study that followed people in a German town after a cell tower was erected and found stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline significantly increased over the first 6 months after the antenna activation and decreased dopamine and PEA levels after 18 months (Buchner 2011).
Abdel-Rassoul, G., El-Fateh, O. A., Salem, M. A., Michael, A., Farahat, F., El-Batanouny, M., & Salem, E. (2007). Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. NeuroToxicology, 28(2), 434–440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2006.07.012.
Amraee, A., Seif, F., Bayatiani, M. R., Shakeri, M., & Zakeri, F. (2021). Correlation between Base Transceiver Station and the Quality of Sleep and Life of Nearby Residents. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics, 18(1), 10–14. https://ijmp.mums.ac.ir/article_14561.html.
Balmori, A. (2022). Evidence for a health risk by RF on humans living around mobile phone base stations: From radiofrequency sickness to cancer. Environmental Research, 214, 113851. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113851
Balmori, A. (2010). Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: The city turned into a laboratory. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 29(1–2), 31–35. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368371003685363.
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Buchner, K., & Eger, H. D. I. (2011). Changes of Clinically Important Neurotransmitters under the Influence of Modulated RF Fields A Long-term Study under Real-life Conditions. https://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Rimbach-Study-20112.pdf.
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Gandhi, G., Kaur, G., & Nisar, U. (2015). A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 34(4), 344–354. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2014.933349.
Gandhi, G., Naru, J., Kaur, M., & Kaur, G. (2014). DNA and Chromosomal Damage in Residents Near a Mobile Phone Base Station. International Journal of Human Genetics, 14(3–4), 107–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/09723757.2014.11886234.
Gómez-Perretta, C., Navarro, E. A., Segura, J., & Portolés, M. (2013). Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 3(12), e003836. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003836.
Hardell, L., & Koppel, T. (2022). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity close to mobile phone base stations—A case study in Stockholm, Sweden. Reviews on Environmental Health. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2021-0169.
Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., Hedendahl, L. K., Koppel, T., & Ahonen, M. (2019). Environmental radiofrequency radiation at the Järntorget Square in Stockholm Old Town, Sweden in May, 2018 compared with results on brain and heart tumour risks in rats exposed to 1.8 GHz base station environmental emissions. World Academy of Sciences Journal, 1(1), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2018.5.
Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., & Hedendahl, L. K. (2018). Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report. Oncology Letters, 15(5), 7871–7883. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.8285.
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