Research on Wireless and Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Field Impacts to Nervous System – Environmental Health Trust


Research on Wireless and Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Field Impacts to Nervous System

Alkis, M. E., Bilgin, H. M., Akpolat, V., Dasdag, S., Yegin, K., Yavas, M. C., & Akdag, M. Z. (2019). Effect of 900-, 1800-, and 2100-MHz radiofrequency radiation on DNA and oxidative stress in brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 38(1), 32–47.

Bertagna, F., Lewis, R., Silva, S. R. P., McFadden, J., & Jeevaratnam, K. (2021). Effects of electromagnetic fields on neuronal ion channels: A systematic review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1499(1), 82–103. 

Cabré-Riera, A., Marroun, H. E., Muetzel, R., van Wel, L., Liorni, I., Thielens, A., Birks, L. E., Pierotti, L., Huss, A., Joseph, W., Wiart, J., Capstick, M., Hillegers, M., Vermeulen, R., Cardis, E., Vrijheid, M., White, T., Röösli, M., Tiemeier, H., & Guxens, M. (2020). Estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses and brain volumes in preadolescents. Environment International, 142, 105808. 

Cabré-Riera, A., van Wel, L., Liorni, I., Koopman-Verhoeff, M. E., Imaz, L., Ibarluzea, J., Huss, A., Wiart, J., Vermeulen, R., Joseph, W., Capstick, M., Vrijheid, M., Cardis, E., Röösli, M., Eeftens, M., Thielens, A., Tiemeier, H., & Guxens, M. (2022). Estimated all-day and evening whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses, and sleep in preadolescents. Environmental Research, 204(Pt C), 112291. 

Echchgadda, I., Cantu, J. C., Tolstykh, G. P., Butterworth, J. W., Payne, J. A., & Ibey, B. L. (2022). Changes in the excitability of primary hippocampal neurons following exposure to 3.0 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 3506.

Fragopoulou, A. F., Samara, A., Antonelou, M. H., Xanthopoulou, A., Papadopoulou, A., Vougas, K., Koutsogiannopoulou, E., Anastasiadou, E., Stravopodis, D. J., Tsangaris, G. T., & Margaritis, L. H. (2012). Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 31(4), 250–274.

Hao, Y.-H., Zhao, L., & Peng, R.-Y. (2015). Effects of microwave radiation on brain energy metabolism and related mechanisms. Military Medical Research, 2, 4. 

Hu, C., Zuo, H., & Li, Y. (2021). Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Neurotransmitters in the Brain. Frontiers in Public Health, 9. 

Li, Y., Deng, P., Chen, C., Ma, Q., Pi, H., He, M., Lu, Y., Gao, P., Zhou, C., He, Z., Zhang, Y., Yu, Z., & Zhang, L. (2021). 1,800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Irradiation Impairs Neurite Outgrowth With a Decrease in Rap1-GTP in Primary Mouse Hippocampal Neurons and Neuro2a Cells. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 771508. 

Lu, Y., Xu, S., He, M., Chen, C., Zhang, L., Liu, C., Chu, F., Yu, Z., Zhou, Z., & Zhong, M. (2012). Glucose administration attenuates spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density microwave exposure. Physiology & Behavior, 106(5), 631–637. 

Mumtaz, S., Rana, J. N., Choi, E. H., & Han, I. (2022). Microwave Radiation and the Brain: Mechanisms, Current Status, and Future Prospects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(16), 9288. 

Nittby, H., Brun, A., Eberhardt, J., Malmgren, L., Persson, B. R. R., & Salford, L. G. (2009). Increased blood–brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure

Pall, M. L. (n.d.). Low Intensity Electromagnetic Fields Act via Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel (VGCC) Activation to Cause Very Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: 18 Distinct Types of Evidence. Current Alzheimer Research, 19(2), 119–132.

Pall, M. L. (2016). Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 75, 43–51. 

Sharma, A., Shrivastava, S., & Shukla, S. (2020). Exposure of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Biochemical and Pathological Alterations. Neurology India, 68(5), 1092–1100. 

Sırav, B., & Seyhan, N. (2016). Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 75(Pt B), 123–127. 

Sonmez, O. F., Odaci, E., Bas, O., & Kaplan, S. (2010). Purkinje cell number decreases in the adult female rat cerebellum following exposure to 900MHz electromagnetic field. Brain Research, 1356, 95–101. 

Tan B, Canturk Tan F, Yalcin B, Dasdag S, Yegin K, Yay AH. (2022)  Changes in the histopathology and in the proteins related to the MAPK pathway in the brains of rats exposed to pre and postnatal radiofrequency radiation over four generations [published online ahead of print, 2022 Oct 29]. J Chem Neuroanat.126:102187 

Tang, J., Zhang, Y., Yang, L., Chen, Q., Tan, L., Zuo, S., Feng, H., Chen, Z., & Zhu, G. (2015). Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats. Brain Research, 1601, 92–101.

Volkow, N. D., Tomasi, D., Wang, G.-J., Vaska, P., Fowler, J. S., Telang, F., Alexoff, D., Logan, J., & Wong, C. (2011). Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism. JAMA, 305(8), 808–813. 

Memory and Cognition 

Cabré-Riera, A., van Wel, L., Liorni, I., Thielens, A., Birks, L. E., Pierotti, L., Joseph, W., González-Safont, L., Ibarluzea, J., Ferrero, A., Huss, A., Wiart, J., Santa-Marina, L., Torrent, M., Vrijkotte, T., Capstick, M., Vermeulen, R., Vrijheid, M., Cardis, E., … Guxens, M. (2021). Association between estimated whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields dose and cognitive function in preadolescents and adolescents. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 231, 113659.

Foerster, M., Thielens, A., Joseph, W., Eeftens, M., & R, öösli M. (n.d.). A Prospective Cohort Study of Adolescents’ Memory Performance and Individual Brain Dose of Microwave Radiation from Wireless Communication. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126(7), 077007. 

Fragopoulou, A. F., Miltiadous, P., Stamatakis, A., Stylianopoulou, F., Koussoulakos, S. L., & Margaritis, L. H. (2010). Whole body exposure with GSM 900MHz affects spatial memory in mice. Pathophysiology: The Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology, 17(3), 179–187.

Maaroufi, K., Had-Aissouni, L., Melon, C., Sakly, M., Abdelmelek, H., Poucet, B., & Save, E. (2014). Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload. Behavioural Brain Research, 258, 80–89. 

Ntzouni, M. P., Skouroliakou, A., Kostomitsopoulos, N., & Margaritis, L. H. (2013). Transient and cumulative memory impairments induced by GSM 1.8 GHz cell phone signal in a mouse model. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 32(1), 95–120. 

Ntzouni, M. P., Stamatakis, A., Stylianopoulou, F., & Margaritis, L. H. (2011). Short-term memory in mice is affected by mobile phone radiation. Pathophysiology: The Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology, 18(3), 193–199. 

Tan, S., Wang, H., Xu, X., Zhao, L., Zhang, J., Dong, J., Yao, B., Wang, H., Hao, Y., Zhou, H., Gao, Y., & Peng, R. (2021). Acute effects of 2.856 GHz and 1.5 GHz microwaves on spatial memory abilities and CREB-related pathways. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12348. 

Behavioral and Emotional  

Bagheri Hosseinabadi, M., Khanjani, N., Ebrahimi, M. H., Haji, B., & Abdolahfard, M. (2019). The effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 38(1), 96–101. 

Byun, Y.-H., Ha, M., Kwon, H.-J., Hong, Y.-C., Leem, J.-H., Sakong, J., Kim, S. Y., Lee, C. G., Kang, D., Choi, H.-D., & Kim, N. (2013). Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. PLOS ONE, 8(3), e59742.  

Divan, H. A., Kheifets, L., Obel, C., & Olsen, J. (2012). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health, 66(6), 524–529. 

Hosseini, E., Habibi, M. F., Babri, S., Mohaddes, G., Abkhezr, H., & Heydari, H. (2022). Maternal stress induced anxiety-like behavior exacerbated by electromagnetic fields radiation in female rats offspring. PLOS ONE, 17(8), e0273206. 

Luo X, Huang X, Luo Z, Wang Z, He G, Tan Y, Zhang B, Zhou H, Li P, Shen T, Yu X, Yang X (2021): Electromagnetic field exposure-induced depression features could be alleviated by heat acclimation based on remodeling the gut microbiota. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Nov 15;228:112980.

Sudan, M., Birks, L. E., Aurrekoetxea, J. J., Ferrero, A., Gallastegi, M., Guxens, M., Ha, M., Lim, H., Olsen, J., González-Safont, L., Vrijheid, M., & Kheifets, L. (2018). Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child cognition at age 5 years in 3 birth cohorts. Environment International, 120, 155–162.  

Sudan, M., Olsen, J., Arah, O. A., Obel, C., & Kheifets, L. (2016). Prospective cohort analysis of cellphone use and emotional and behavioural difficulties in children. J Epidemiol Community Health, 70(12), 1207–1213.  


Ahuja, Y. R., Sharma, S., & Bahadur, B. (2013). Autism: An epigenomic side-effect of excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields. Medicine and Medical Sciences, 5(4), 171–177.

Herbert, M. R., & Sage, C. (2013a). Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – Part I. Pathophysiology, 20(3), 191–209. 

Herbert, M. R., & Sage, C. (2013b). Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II. Pathophysiology, 20(3), 211–234.

Kane, R. C. (2004). A possible association between fetal/neonatal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation and the increased incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Medical Hypotheses, 62(2), 195–197.

Thornton, I. M. (2006). Out of time: A possible link between mirror neurons, autism and electromagnetic radiation. Medical Hypotheses, 67(2), 378–382. 

Wen, Y., Alshikho, M. J., & Herbert, M. R. (2016). Pathway Network Analyses for Autism Reveal Multisystem Involvement, Major Overlaps with Other Diseases and Convergence upon MAPK and Calcium Signaling. PLOS ONE, 11(4), e0153329.